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Flag Log's 1861 Chart of National Flags

Aceh (civil)
Aceh (state)
Argentina (state)
Argentina (civil)
Anhalt-Bernburg
Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen
Asahan
Austria (state)
Austria (civil)
Baden
Bavaria (state)
Bavaria (civil)
Belgium
Bolivia (state)
Bolivia (civil)
Bora Bora
Brazil
Bremen
Brunei
Brunswick
Burma
Chile
Colombia
Confederate States of America
Costa Rica (civil)
Costa Rica (state)
Dai Nam
Deli
Denmark (civil)
Denmark (state)
Ecuador
France
Frankfurt
Greece (land)
Greece (sea)
Guatemala (civil)
Guatemala (state)
Haiti (civil)
Haiti (state)
Hamburg
Hanover
Hawaii
Hesse (state)
Hesse (civil)
Hesse-Homburg
Hesse-Kassel
Honduras
Huahine
Italy (civil)
Italy (state)
Japan (state)
Japan (civl)
Jebel Shammar
Johor
Korea
Lauenburg
Liberia
Liechtenstein
Limburg
Lippe (state)
Lippe (civil)
Lübeck (state)
Lübeck (civil)
Luxembourg
Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Mexico
Monaco
Morocco
Muscat
Nassau
Nepal
Netherlands
Nicaragua
Norway (civil)
Norway (state)
Oldenburg
Orange Free State
Papal States
Paraguay (front)
Paraguay (back)
Persia
Peru (civil)
Peru (state)
Portugal
Prussia (state)
Prussia (civil)
Raiatea
Rarotonga
Reuss Elder Line
Reuss Junior Line
Rimatara
Rurutu
Russia
Salvador
Sarawak (state)
Sarawak (civil)
Saxe-Altenburg
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Saxe-Meiningen
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Saxony
Schaumburg-Lippe
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Selangor
Siam
Sokoto
South African Republic
Spain (state)
Spain (civil)
Sulu
Sweden (civil)
Sweden (state)
Switzerland
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uvea
Venezuela (civil)
Venezuela (state)
Waldeck-Pyrmont
Witu
Württemberg
Zanzibar

Appendix – Non-Independent Territories

Abu Dhabi
Ajman
Andorra
Bahrain
Dubai
Heligoland
Ionian Islands
Jersey
Maldive Islands
Malta
Mangareva
Martinique
Montenegro
Order of Malta
Queensland
Romania
Ryukyu
Samos
Serbia (civil)
Serbia (state)
Sharjah
Tahiti
Tahuata
Tunis
Umm al-Quwain

Historical Notes

February 4: The secessionist states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina declared the establishment of the Confederate States of America.
March 4: The Confederate States adopted a flag that was closely modelled on the Stars and Stripes.
March 17: The Kingdom of Sardinia became the Kingdom of Italy.
March 18: Spain re-annexed the Dominican Republic by request of President Pedro Santana.
April 2: Zanzibar was separated from Muscat.
May 21: The Confederate States added two more stars (for Virginia and Arkansas) to its flag, bringing the total to 9.
May 31: Bahrain became a British protectorate.
June 22: The separate civil flags of Wallachia and Moldavia were replaced by the future Romanian tricolour.
July 2: The Confederate States added two more stars (for Tennessee and North Carolina) to its flag, bringing the total to 11.
July 4: The United States added a 34th star (for Kansas) to its flag.
July 26: New Granada adopted a new state flag.
September 20: New Granada changed its name to Colombia.
November 26: Colombia adopted a new flag based on the original flag of Gran Colombia.
+
November 28: The Confederate States added two more stars to its flag, representing the disputed states of Kentucky and Missouri. This brought the total to 13.
December 23: The United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia were fully united as Romania.
Sometime around 1861: Montenegro adopted a new flag.