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Flag Log's 1878 Chart of National Flags

Argentina (state)
Argentina (civil)
Austria-Hungary (state)
Austria-Hungary (civil)
Belgium
Bolivia (state)
Bolivia (civil)
Bora Bora
Brazil
Brunei
Burma
Chile
China
Colombia
Costa Rica (civil)
Costa Rica (state)
Dai Nam
Denmark (civil)
Denmark (state)
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
France
Germany
Greece (land)
Greece (sea)
Guatemala (state)
Guatemala (civil)
Haiti (civil)
Haiti (state)
Hawaii
Honduras (state)
Honduras (civil)
Huahine
Italy (civil)
Italy (state)
Japan
Jebel Shammar
Johor
Korea
Liberia
Liechtenstein
Luxembourg
Mexico
Monaco
Montenegro (state)
Montenegro (civil)
Morocco
Muscat and Oman
Nepal
Netherlands
Nicaragua
Norway (civil)
Norway (state)
Orange Free State
Paraguay (front)
Paraguay (back)
Persia
Peru (civil)
Peru (state)
Portugal
Raiatea
Rapa Nui
Rarotonga
Rimatara
Romania
Rurutu
Russia
Salvador
Samoa
San Marino (state)
San Marino (civil)
Sarawak (state)
Sarawak (civil)
Serbia (civil)
Serbia (state)
Siam
Sokoto
Spain (state)
Spain (civil)
Sweden (civil)
Sweden (state)
Switzerland
Tonga
Tunis
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uvea
Venezuela (civil)
Venezuela (state)
Witu
Zanzibar

Appendix – Non-Independent Territories

Abu Dhabi
Ajman
Andorra
Bahama Islands
Bahrain
Bermuda
Bosnia-Herzegovina
British Guiana
British Honduras
British West Africa
Bulgaria
Cambodia
Canada
Cape Colony
Ceylon
Dubai
Eastern Rumelia
Egypt
Falkland Islands
Fiji
Gibraltar
Gold Coast
Guernsey
Heligoland
Hong Kong
Jamaica
Jersey
Khiva
Leeward Islands
Maldive Islands
Malta
Mangareva
Martinique
Mauritius
Natal
New South Wales
New Zealand
Newfoundland
Order of Malta
Perak
Queensland
Ryukyu
Saint Helena
Samos
Selangor
Shanghai
Sharjah
Sikkim
South Australia
Straits Settlements
Tahiti
Tahuata
Tasmania
Trinidad
Umm al-Quwain
Victoria
Western Australia

Historical Notes

July 13: The Treaty of Berlin established the independence of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia from Turkey. Bulgaria became an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty. Eastern Rumelia became an autonomous territory. Bosnia-Herzegovina became virtually independent when its administration was ceded to Austria-Hungary.
July 22: Sulu was annexed by Spain.
August 19: Bosnia-Herzegovina was occupied by Austria-Hungary.
Sometime in 1878: Montenegro adopted a civil flag.
Sometime in 1878: Serbia removed the four stars from its state flag.
Sometime around 1878: Dai Nam adopted a new flag with its name written sideways in Chinese characters.